Doesn’t it seem like Botox is showing up everywhere as a medical treatment? Botox is a brand of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a protein substance originally derived from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In its original form it was the toxin responsible for botulism, the paralyzing illness often caused by eating contaminated food.
BoNT is now used to treat a number of medical conditions including muscle spasms, excessive sweating, overactive bladder, and some eye muscle conditions. However, one of its most common uses is in the preventive treatment of chronic migraine. Chronic migraine, defined as headache occurring more than 15 days a month for more than three months, is rare, affecting only about 3% of the migraine population. Nonetheless, since migraine itself is so common, this condition ends up affecting a large number of people and can be extremely debilitating.
A recent meta-analysis pooled the results of multiple prior studies to investigate the usefulness of Botox, a brand of BoNT, in reducing the frequency of chronic migraine. The results suggested that there was benefit from this treatment; it not only improved quality of life and significantly reduced the frequency of chronic migraine headaches, but did so with few and mild side effects.
How might BoNT work to prevent chronic migraine?
Botox was introduced for treatment of chronic migraine in 2000, after some people receiving injections for cosmetic treatment of facial lines reported improvement of headaches. Initial studies after that observation produced conflicting results. Then in 2010, two large studies showed enough benefit (reduction in headache days and improved quality of life) that the FDA approved this treatment for chronic migraine.
Botulinum neurotoxin is taken up into nerves, where it may modify the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry signals between brain cells. This is the original mechanism responsible for the paralysis in BoNT poisoning.
However, this same process in other nerves may interrupt pain production by blocking the release of pain-producing chemicals such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Although not yet proven, this process could lead to a turning-down of pain processes inside the brain that may be responsible for chronic migraine. Although this mechanism can reduce headache frequency and severity, it does not seem to change the underlying migraine condition.
What are the risks of this treatment?
Theoretically, the spread of BoNT from the site of injection to other areas could result in muscle weakness or paralysis, and doctors usually avoid using BoNT in people with muscle weakness conditions. In practice, however, body-wide reactions or side effects are rare.
Mild injection-related irritation is sometimes reported. At times, temporary eyelid drooping or a change in facial expression resulting from the loss of forehead lines can be seen. These complications can be avoided by moving subsequent injections to a different location. People typically have no restrictions after their injections, and they may return to work or normal activities.
Who would be a candidate for Botox and who wouldn’t?
Since its introduction Botox has become an accepted treatment for chronic migraine when other standard treatments have failed. Botox can help people feel and function better with fewer missed days of work, and the treatments are often covered by health insurance plans.
Botox is not typically used in people who have 14 or fewer migraine headaches per month. However, it is sometimes used “off label” (outside FDA approval) for other forms of chronic headache, such as chronic tension headache.
Where does Botox fit relative to other treatments to prevent migraine?
A comprehensive migraine management plan consists of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding migraine triggers as much as possible, and using over-the-counter and prescription abortive medications (to stop a migraine already in progress), as needed.
In chronic migraine, standard treatments, including daily prescription preventive medications alone or in combination, are usually tried before Botox. A disadvantage of Botox is that it must be administered through injection by a medical provider every three months in order to maintain the effect. In addition, those on Botox may need to continue taking their previous prescription migraine medications for optimal results.
Nonetheless, Botox has become a common treatment in headache centers in the US. Botox injections are well-tolerated, beneficial, and appear to be safe for long-term management of chronic migraine.
Bible verses for today’s meditation and inspiration: Matthew E. McLaren
Psalm 38:3 There is no soundness in my flesh because of Your indignation; There is no health in my bones because of my sin.
Matthew 9:12-13 But when Jesus heard this, He said, “It is not those who are healthy who need a physician, but those who are sick. “But go and learn what this means: ‘I DESIRE COMPASSION, AND NOT SACRIFICE,’ for I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners.”
Luke 5:31-32 And Jesus answered and said to them, “It is not those who are well who need a physician, but those who are sick. “I have not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentance.”
Exodus 15:2 “The LORD is my strength and song, And He has become my salvation; This is my God, and I will praise Him; My father’s God, and I will extol Him.
Acts 3:16 “And on the basis of faith in His name, it is the name of Jesus which has strengthened this man whom you see and know; and the faith which comes through Him has given him this perfect health in the presence of you all.
Exodus 23:25 “But you shall serve the LORD your God, and He will bless your bread and your water; and I will remove sickness from your midst.
Philippians 4:6-7 Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God.
Psalm 32:4-5 For day and night Your hand was heavy upon me; My vitality was drained away as with the fever heat of summer. Selah. I acknowledged my sin to You, And my iniquity I did not hide; I said, “I will confess my transgressions to the LORD”; And You forgave the guilt of my sin. Selah.
Psalm 149:4 For the LORD takes pleasure in His people; He will beautify the afflicted ones with salvation.
1 Thessalonians 5:9 For God has not destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ,
Titus 2:11 For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all men,
2 Peter 3:15 and regard the patience of our Lord as salvation; just as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given him, wrote to you,
Revelation 12:10 Then I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, “Now the salvation, and the power, and the kingdom of our God and the authority of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren has been thrown down, he who accuses them before our God day and night.
Psalm 13:5-6 But I have trusted in Your lovingkindness; My heart shall rejoice in Your salvation. I will sing to the LORD, Because He has dealt bountifully with me.
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